Established in 1735 while New Hampshire was still under governance of Massachusetts, this town was the site of Fort Number 1 in the line of protective trading forts bordering the Connecticut River. After New Hampshire became an independent province under Governor Benning Wentworth, the town was incorporated in 1752 as Chesterfield, after Philip Stanhope, fourth Earl of Chesterfield. The Earl served as Secretary of State and joined William Pitt in opposing what they considered England's unfair treatment of the American Colonies. It is also the birthplace of Harlan Fiske Stone, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1941 to 1946.
Population change totaled 2,129 over 56 years, from 1,405 in 1960 to 3,534 in 2016. The largest decennial percent change was 41 percent between 1970 and 1980. The 2016 Census estimate for Chesterfield was 3,534 residents, which ranked 103rd among New Hampshire's incorporated cities and towns. Thier are 77.5 persons per square mile of land area. (info from NHES website)