This territory was once a part of Monadnock Number 5 (Marlborough), one of the settlements reserved for soldiers of the French wars. In 1796, settlers in the southwest portion of Packersfield (Nelson), the northern portion of Marlborough, and the northwest portion of Dublin, who felt their homes were too far from the meetinghouses of their respective towns, petitioned for an incorporated town of their own. The 1796 petition failed, but petitioners were successful on their second try in 1812. The new town was named Roxbury after their old village, now part of Boston.
Population change for Roxbury totaled 85 over 56 years, from 137 in 1960 to 222 in 2016. The largest decennial percent change was an increase of 22 percent between 1990 and 2000, a numeric change of 43. The 2016 Census estimate for Roxbury was 222 residents, which ranked 232nd among New Hampshire's incorporated cities and towns, the third smallest community. (info from NHES website)