Named "New Marlborough" for the Duke of Marlborough until 1800, the town was a New Hampshire grant chartered on April 29, 1751 to Timothy Dwight and 64 others from Northampton, Massachusetts and vicinity. The French and Indian War prevented settlement, so the first charter was forfeited and a new one issued by Governor Benning Wentworth on September 21, 1761, then again on April 17, 1764 as New Marlborough. The town was surveyed in 1762, and 64 equal "rights" (divisions) were created, with four lots in the center of town excepted. First settled in 1763, the town grew rapidly between 1764 and 1770 with emigrants from Massachusetts and Connecticut. By 1799 there were 313 children registered in the town's schools.
(Info from wikipedia)